Spring Term 2023

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Course Information

Common Courses

English 20. Literary Forms

Instructor: Nicholas Watson
Tuesday & Thursday, 12:00-1:15pm | Location: TBA

Enrollment: Limited to 27 students

This foundational course for English concentrators examines literary form and genre. We explore some of the many kinds of literature as they have changed over time, along with the shapes and forms that writers create, critics describe, and readers learn to recognize. The body of the course looks to the great literary types, or modes, such as epic, tragedy, and lyric, as well as to the workings of literary style in moments of historical change, producing the transformation, recycling, and sometimes the mocking of past forms. While each version of English 20 includes a different array of genres and texts from multiple periods, those texts will always include five major works from across literary history: Beowulf (epic), The Winter’s Tale (tragicomedy or romance), Persuasion (comic novel), The Souls of Black Folk (essays; expository prose), and Elizabeth Bishop’s poems (lyric). The course integrates creative writing with critical attention: assignments will take creative as well as expository and analytical forms.

Note: English 20 is one of the required Common Courses for English concentrators and Secondaries and is a limited enrollment course which will prioritize sophomores and first-years; juniors and seniors who want to take it as an elective will be considered for any remaining spots. Enrollment priority exceptions may be made for people changing concentrations or presenting other notable reasons

English 97. Sophomore Tutorial: Literary Methods

Section 1 Instructor: Beth Blum
Tuesday & Thursday, 12:00-1:15pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 15 students

Section 2 Instructor: Anna Wilson
Tuesday & Thursday, 1:30-2:45pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 15 students

This course, taught in small groups and required for concentrators, introduces theories, interpretive frameworks, and central questions about literature and literary media. What do we do when we read? What is an author? What do we mean by “literature” itself? How might we compare and evaluate interpretations? How do the historical, social, cultural, and legal frameworks around a text shape its meanings and its effects? Combining major critical and theoretical writings with primary works, the course investigates how literary production and interpretation are informed by philosophical and aesthetic traditions, gender and sexuality, race and ethnicity, national and post-colonial identities, and the material forms in which literature circulates, from parchment books to the internet. Students will also practice fundamental literary research methods through close engagement with Harvard libraries.

Note: English 97 is one of the required Common Courses for English concentrators and is open to sophomores and first-years planning to concentrate in English. Enrollment priority exceptions may be made for people changing concentrations or presenting other notable reasons.

Lecture Courses

AFRAMER 130x. Richard Wright: Literature, Philosophy, and Politics

Instructor: Glenda Carpio and Tommie Shelby
Monday, 3:00-5:00 pm | Location: TBA

This course examines the major fiction and nonfiction works of Richard Wright from a literary, philosophical, and political perspective. We will take an interdisciplinary approach to this wide-ranging and canonical American author, contextualizing him within the broader tradition of black letters. Readings include but are not limited to Uncle Tom's Children, Native Son, Black Boy, American Hunger, 12 Million Black Voices, The Outsider, Black Power, The Color Curtain, White Man Listen!, and Eight Men. The course also explores major influences in Wright's development including the work of Marx, Sartre, and Freud.

This course satisfies the English Concentration "Diversity in Literature" requirement for students on the “Common Ground” curriculum.

This course satisfies the “1900-2000 Guided Elective" requirement for English concentrators and Secondary Field students.

AFRAMER 180z. Freedom Writers: Race and Literary Form

Instructor: Jesse McCarthy
Monday & Wednesday, 10:30-11:45 am | Location: TBA

What does freedom have to do with our ability to read and write? How have writers addressed the conflicting and contradictory concept of race by writing about it? This course will investigate the history and practice of writing about the vexed relationship between race and freedom, the role of writing in political struggles for civil rights and the abolition of slavery, and the quest for a meaningful life and artistic freedom under conditions that deny that opportunity. We will read widely, primarily—though not exclusively—texts from (and about) the African diaspora from the 16th century to the present. Authors will include Ottabah Cugoano, Phillis Wheatley, Bartolomé de Las Casas, Sylvia Wynter, C.L.R. James, David Walker, Frederick Douglass, Anna Julia Cooper, Ida B. Wells, W. E. B. Du Bois, Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Ralph Ellison, James Baldwin, Audre Lorde, Toni Morrison, Hilton Als and Rachel Kaadzi Ghansah. The final assignment will involve using the resources of the course to produce an original essay on a topic of your choice related to our themes.

This course satisfies the English Concentration "Diversity in Literature" requirement for students on the “Common Ground” curriculum.

English 103g. Advanced Old English: Scribes and Manuscripts

Instructor: Daniel Donoghue
Monday & Wednesday, 10:30-11:45 am | Location: TBA

Building on the basic grammar and translation skills learned in English 102, this course introduces students to Old English literature in its most immediate context: the manuscripts that preserve their earliest copies. The weekly task of translation will be supplemented by consistent attention to the manuscript contexts of Old English literature. The texts will include selections from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the OE Genesis with its illustrations, Exeter Book Riddles, Beowulf, and others. The instruction will guide students through basic principles of manuscript study. As a special event we will invite a professional calligrapher to instruct students—equipped with a goose quill!—on the traditional skill of calligraphy. At the end of the term, with the help of personal coaching, each student will edit and translate manuscript folios in a collaborative edition of an Old English text.

Recommended Preparation: English 102.

Students who complete both English 102 and 103 with honors grades will fulfill the College language requirement and the English Department’s Foreign Literature requirement.

English 110ff. Medieval Fanfiction

Instructor: Anna Wilson
Tuesday & Thursday, 10:30-11:45 am | Location: TBA

Fanfiction is a surprisingly powerful tool for examining medieval literature. It sheds light on the dynamics of rereading and transformation that characterizes medieval literary culture, which in turn deepen our own understanding of the nature of creativity. In this class we will read some twentieth- and twenty-first century retellings of medieval stories, including fanfiction, alongside medieval literary texts that rewrite, reimagine, or let their authors star in pre-existing stories. This medieval fanfiction will include different takes on the medieval superhero Sir Gawain (including the 2020 movie starring Dev Patel), unauthorized additions to The Canterbury Tales, and medieval Christian devotional manuals which encourage their readership to participate in imaginative exercises where they imagine themselves as participating in events in the life of Jesus Christ. Along the way we will learn what medieval readers and writers thought of questions like, what is an author? What is literature? What is a character? And what happens in our brains when we read? 

This course satisfies the “Pre-1700 Guided Elective" requirement for English concentrators and Secondary Field students. 

English 119ty. English Literature: The First 1000 Years

Instructor: Alan Niles
Tuesday & Thursday, 12:00-1:15pm | Location: TBA

This course is an introduction to the different voices, cultures, and traditions that made the first 1000 years of English literature, from Beowulf to Aphra Behn. We will study major and influential writings alongside lesser-known interlocutors—works by Marie de France, Geoffrey Chaucer, Margery Kempe, Edmund Spenser, William Shakespeare, Mary Sidney, John Milton, Alexander Pope, and more. We will engage with the (often contested) social, political, and religious contexts that gave rise to creative work. We will pay particular attention to the historical transformations of romance, epic, drama, fable, and lyric, and the ways these forms were embedded in the social worlds of their time.

This course satisfies the English Concentration "Arrivals" requirement for students on the “Common Ground” curriculum.

This course satisfies the “Pre-1700 Guided Elective" requirement for English concentrators and Secondary Field students.

English 124p. Shakespearean Playwriting

Instructor: Stephen Greenblatt
Tuesday & Thursday, 1:30-2:45 pm | Location: TBA

An exploration of Shakespeare at work:  what plot devices was he particularly drawn to, how did he develop characters, how did he characteristically construct scenes, how did he handle dialogue. The course will also -- with the aid of supplementary secondary and critical readings -- examine some of the conditions within which he worked: the structure and economics of his theater, censorship, the resources of his language, training in rhetoric, the assumptions of his audience, the nature of his competition.  Students will try their own hand at “Shakespearean playwriting,” drafting scenes, on the basis of surviving primary materials, from two lost plays, the one a tragedy of political assassination, the other a romantic tragicomedy of love, betrayal, and madness.  Written assignments will include two papers, the two playwriting assignments, and the compiling of a list of Shakespeare’s favorite tricks-of-the-trade.

This course satisfies the English Concentration "Shakespeare" requirement for students on the “Common Ground” curriculum.

This course satisfies the “Pre-1700 Guided Elective" requirement for English concentrators and Secondary Field students.

English 131p. Milton's Paradise Lost

Instructor: Gordon Teskey
Monday & Wednesday, 1:30-2:45 pm | Location: TBA

This course focuses on Milton’s most famous work, Paradise Lost, the greatest long poem in English and the only successful classical epic in the modern world. Milton went totally blind in his forties and composed Paradise Lost by reciting verses to anyone available to take them down, like the blind prophets and poets of legend. Yet the moral and political questions he raised—what is the human? what is gender? what is the political? what is religion? what is dissent? what is legitmacy? what is revolt?—are surprisingly enduring and modern. His own solutions to these questions may not be ours, but his abilility to provoke thought on them speaks to our time. We will consider how Milton generates the sublime and how he builds great scenes and characters, especially his most famous one, Satan.

This course satisfies the “Pre-1700 Guided Elective" requirement for English concentrators and Secondary Field students.

English 164p. 20th Century Poetry

Instructor: Peter Sacks
Wednesday, 3:00-5:00pm | Location: TBA

There are almost as many paths through Twentieth Century Poetry as there are individual poems.  Each iteration of this course will have different – and evolving – emphases.  For the Spring of 2023 we shall focus on the Century’s relation between poetry and history.  Poets include W.B.Yeats, T.S.Eliot, Marianne Moore, Elizabeth Bishop, Muriel Rukeyser, Langston Hughes, Gwendolyn Brooks, Adrienne Rich, Philip Larkin, Seamus Heaney, Geoffrey Hill.  Brief attention will also be devoted to poetry in translation by Mandelstam, Celan, Lorca, Cavafy, Anna Swir, Zbigniew Herbert, and others.

This course satisfies the English Concentration "Poets" requirement for students on the “Common Ground” curriculum.

This course satisfies the “1900-2000 Guided Elective" requirement for English concentrators and Secondary Field students.

English 178x. The American Novel: Dreiser to the Present

Instructor: Philip Fisher
Monday & Wednesday, 10:30-11:45am | Location: TBA

A survey of the 20th-century novel, its forms, patterns of ideas, techniques, cultural context, rivalry with film and radio, short story, and fact.  Wharton, Age of Innocence; Cather, My Antonia; Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms and stories; Faulkner, The Sound and the Fury and stories;  Ellison, Invisible Man; Nabokov, Lolita; Robinson, Housekeeping; Salinger, Catcher in the Rye and stories; Ha Jin, Waiting; Lerner, Leaving the Atocha Station. Stories by James, London, Anderson, Fitzgerald, Hemingway, Gaitskill, Wallace, Beattie, Lahiri, and Ford.

English 189vg. Video Game Storytelling

Instructor: Vidyan Ravinthiran
Monday & Wednesday, 10:30-11:45 am | Location: TBA

Although this course touches on blockbuster games—“ludo-narrative dissonance” and India’s role in Uncharted: The Lost Legacy; racism, satire, and the white-saviour narrative in the Far Cry franchise; Ayn Rand, US history and the illusion of gamer choice in Bioshock—it’s primarily concerned with indie titles which explore alternative forms of storytelling. More specifically, it’s about games pilloried—rather as free verse poetry is bashed as “just chopped up prose”—as mere “walking simulators”, in which there’s more exploration than action, more narrative than gameplay. These qualities have migrated into bigger titles like Death Stranding, as developers prioritize discovery over destruction, asking us to think differently about our relationship to game environments. We’ll examine the gendered deconstruction of horror-codes in Gone Home, and how the house-exploration theme plays out differently in What Remains of Edith Finch?; consider outsiderhood and English village life in Everybody’s Gone To The Rapture; the connection between pastoral and paranoia in Firewatch; and exploded conventions in The Stanley Parable. 

English 192. Political Theatre and the Structure of Drama

Instructor: Elaine Scarry
Monday & Wednesday, 1:30-2:45 pm | Location: TBA

The estranged, didactic, intellectual theatre of Brecht, and the ritualistic, emergency theatre of Artaud serve as reference points for a range of American, English, and Continental plays. The unique part played by "consent" in theatrical experience. Emphasis on the structural features of drama: establishing or violating the boundary between audience and stage; merging or separating actor and character; expanding or destroying language. Readings include Brecht, O'Neill, Artaud, Genet, Pirandello, and such earlier authors as Euripides and Shelley.

English 195bd. The Dark Side of Big Data

Instructor: Maria Dikcis
Tuesday & Thursday, 10:30-11:45 am | Location: TBA

Does it sometimes feel like Instagram ads are listening a little too closely to your conversations? Have you ever wondered if certain corporations might own images of your face? Today, fears abound that algorithms are not only populating our lives with annoying targeted advertisements but might also be creating the most unequal societies that have ever existed. In this interdisciplinary seminar, we will explore key methodological overlaps and differences between humanistic and scientific approaches to the phenomenon known as Big Data, or enormously large data sets that are analyzed by computer software to reveal patterns associated with human behavior and communications. In particular, we will focus our attention on the dark side of Big Data, which is increasingly embedded with harmful biases against women, people of color, immigrants, and low-socioeconomic status communities. Our inquires will thus concern a wide array of issues that stem from the misapplication of Big Data, such as data discrimination, biased artificial intelligence, search engines that reinforce racism, predictive policing, and surveillance capitalism, as well as how these issues intersect with race, class, gender, and citizenship. We will ground these discussions about contemporary theories of Big Data in engagements with a number of literary texts, films, and new media artworks. These cultural case studies range from a poetry collection exploring anti-Blackness and the carceral state, a documentary on social media data scandals, a glitch feminism manifesto, a memoir about working at an Amazon.com fulfillment center, queer video games, and robot love poems.​​​​​​​

GENED 1133. Is the U.S. Civil War Still Being Fought?

Instructor: John Stauffer
Monday & Wednesday, 1:30-2:45 pm | Location: TBA

Most of us were taught that the Civil War between the Confederacy and the Union was fought on battlefields chiefly in the American South between the years of 1861-1865. In this narrative, the North won and the South lost. But what if the issues that resulted in such devastating bloodshed were never resolved? What if the war never ended? This course demonstrates the ways in which the United States is still fighting the Civil War, arguably THE defining event in U.S. history. In each class, we connect current events to readings and themes in the course, highlighting how and why the war is still being fought. From Nat Turner’s slave rebellion in 1831 to the recent riot (or battle) in Charlottesville, we trace how and why the South was in certain respects the victor, even though the Confederacy was destroyed and the Constitution amended. We explore the different kinds of war—ideological, political, cultural, military, and para-military—that placed the unfreedom of blacks—as slaves, serfs, and prisoners—at the center of larger conflicts over federal versus state and local rule, welfare, globalization, and free trade. We analyze the Civil War in literature, art, politics, photography, prints, film, music, poetry, speeches, and history, while also discovering how these cultural forms worked to shape our memory of the event itself. By the end of the course, we will be able to show how and why contemporary U.S. debates are rooted in this defining narrative, and we will better understand the dilemmas the nation faces today.

This course satisfies the “1700-1900 Guided Elective" requirement for English concentrators and Secondary Field students.

Humanities 10b. A Humanities Colloquium: From Ralph Ellison to Homer

Instructors: Stephen Greenblatt, Louis Menand, Jesse McCarthy, Beth Blum, Kathleen Coleman, Ambrogio Pistoja
Tuesday, 10:30-11:45 am | Location: TBA

2,500 years of essential works, taught by six professors. Humanities 10b will likely include works by Homer, Sappho, Sophocles, Virgil, Dante, Boccaccio, Montaigne, Austen, Du Bois and Joyce, along with the Book of Genesis. One 75-minute lecture plus a 75-minute discussion seminar led by the professors every week. Students will receive instruction in critical writing one hour a week, in writing labs and individual conferences. Students also have opportunities to participate in a range of cultural experiences, ranging from plays and musical events to museum and library collections.  

Note: Humanities 10a and 10b will count as "Open Electives" for English concentrators. The course is open only to first-year students. Students who complete Humanities 10a meet the General Education distribution requirement for Arts & Humanities. Students who take both Humanities 10a and Humanities 10b fulfill the College Writing requirement. This is the only course outside of Expository Writing that satisfies the College Writing requirement. No auditors. The course may not be taken Pass/Fail.

Undergraduate Seminars

English 90ah. Asian American Theater and Performance

Instructor: Ju Yon Kim
Tuesday, 12:45-2:45pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 15 students

This seminar will explore Asian American theater and performance. We will examine how Asian American theater and performance artists have responded to popular images of Asian immigrants and cultures; how Asian American theater companies have cultivated and expanded our understanding of American theater and Asian American identity; and how artists and productions have experimented with conceptions of racial and gender performance. In addition to reading, viewing, and listening to a range of performances, students will participate in workshops led by artists and develop their own final performances.

This course satisfies the “1900-2000 Guided Elective" requirement for English concentrators and Secondary Field students.

This course satisfies the English Concentration "Diversity in Literature" requirement for students on the “Common Ground” curriculum.

English 90cp. Contemporary American Plays

Instructor: Derek Miller
Tuesday, 9:45-11:45am
Enrollment: Limited to 15 students.

This course examines recent scripted theater by American playwrights. Readings focus on work by historically underrepresented writers, including the wave of award-winning plays by Black writers such as Jackie Sibblies Drury, Michael R. Jackson, Aleshea Harris, Branden Jacobs-Jenkins, Jeremy O. Harris, and others. We will consider the shape of the American theater, its response and resistance to contemporary social and political movements, and the pandemic's effects on the present and future of American theater.

This course satisfies the English Concentration "Diversity in Literature" requirement for students on the “Common Ground” curriculum.

English 90eb. Elizabeth Bishop and Others

Instructor: Vidyan Ravinthiran
Wednesday, 12:45-2:45pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 15 students

This course introduces students to the poetry, literary prose, and artful correspondence of one of the major poets of the twentieth century, considering her innovations in all these genres. We will look at her writing in multiple genres alongside the mid-century shift from ‘closed’ to ‘open’ verse forms, and relate stylistic issues to the intellectual and social changes, and political and historical developments of the period. Bishop’s critique of received ideas about nationality, race, power, gender, sexual orientation, and the overlap between culture and nature, is connected with her status as a cosmopolitan poet with links to Canada, the U.S. and Brazil.  ‘Others’ refers both to how her writing comes to terms with the (sociopolitical) reality of other people, and to the comparisons we’ll draw between her writing and that of other poets.   

This course satisfies the “1900-2000 Guided Elective" requirement for English concentrators and Secondary Field students.

This course satisfies the English Concentration "Diversity in Literature" requirement for students on the “Common Ground” curriculum.

English 90ex. The Exorcist

Instructor: David Levine
Wednesday, 12:45-2:45pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 15 students

Briefly America’s most terrifying movie, now an inexhaustible source of camp, reference, and technique, William Friedkin’s The Exorcist is a rich allegory of postwar America. But its very deficiencies, blind spots, and occlusions also make a powerful lens onto the present day. This advanced workshop in devising, adaptation, and critical intervention will perform (literally) an examination of the significance, meaning, and unholy afterlife of The Exorcist, created over the semester using historical research, conversations, attempts at re- staging, religious rites, death-metal growls, and head turns of 180 degrees or more.

This course satisfies the English Concentration "Diversity in Literature" requirement for students on the “Common Ground” curriculum.

English 90lv. Consciousness in Fiction from Austen to Woolf

Instructor: James Wood
Monday, 12:00-2:00pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 15 students

A look at the complex ways in which writers represent their characters' thought in texts by Austen, Flaubert, James, Tolstoy, Chekhov, Giovanni Verga, and Woolf. More broadly, traces the development of stream-of-consciousness, from Austen's incipient mastery of free indirect style, through Flaubert's more sophisticated use of it, to Woolf's full-blown inner monologues, seeing this development as not merely a fact of English and American literature, but as a phenomenon of world literature and an element of our modernity.

This course satisfies the “1700-1900 Guided Elective" requirement for English concentrators and Secondary Field students.​​​​​​​

English 90rc. Re-mediating Colonialism

Instructor: Pamela Klassen
Tuesday, 12:00-2:00pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 15 students

This class will focus on how telling stories on paper, online, and on the land continue to make and remake North America and Turtle Island. Treaties, deeds of property, maps that survey a domain to facilitate resource extraction, sacred scriptures, missionary journalism, transcripts of Royal Commissions, and petitions from representatives of Indigenous nations are all textual modes that claim land, with greater or lesser force. Today, many digital humanities projects attempt to re-mediate these texts to forward a critical consciousness of the ongoing effects and assumptions of settler colonial stories of land (see the websites of the Yellowhead Institute at https://yellowheadinstitute.org/ or the Land Grab Universities project at https://www.landgrabu.org/ ). The readings will focus on Indigenous/settler relations in Canada and the United States, with attention to book history, the materiality of texts, and diverse forms of mediation (e.g. newspapers, statues, websites, TikTok). We will also take field trips to archives and sites in the Cambridge area that help us to see and experience the interaction of texts, land, and memory in the making of colonial nations. Assignments will include a primary source reflection, essay drafts, presentations, and a final essay or digital story.

This course satisfies the English Concentration "Diversity in Literature" requirement for students on the “Common Ground” curriculum.

This course satisfies the “1900-2000 Guided Elective" requirement for English concentrators and Secondary Field students.

English 90rj. Race and Jurisprudence

Instructor: Louis Menand
Wednesday, 9:45-11:45am | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 15 students

How has the American judicial system dealt with racial discrimination, racial segregation, racial exclusion, and systemic or institutional racism? Has the design of the American legal system made it easier or harder to remedy cases of racial inequality and injustice? What should we expect from the courts in the future?

We study cases involving Americans of African and of Asian ancestry, beginning with Dred Scott and ending with the Harvard College admissions case. Visitors include Drew Faust, Mae Ngai, Richard Pildes, and William Lee and Felicia Ellsworth, the trial lawyers in the Harvard College case.

The primary readings are legal documents: the Constitution, judicial opinions, and the statutes judges interpret. We’ll analyze the opinions in order to understand the legal logic that led to their outcomes. We will see, by doing this, how courts are constrained by the system that was designed by the Constitution’s framers and by the traditions of the common law. We will also consider the historical context in which these cases were decided. Two papers and class participation required.

This course satisfies the English Concentration "Diversity in Literature" requirement for students on the “Common Ground” curriculum.

This course satisfies the “1900-2000 Guided Elective" requirement for English concentrators and Secondary Field students.

English 90tu. The Tudors: Literature, Film, Myth

Instructor: Alan Niles
Wednesday, 9:45-11:45am | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 15 students

Henry VIII, “Bloody” Mary, Queen Elizabeth; Shakespeare, Marlowe, Donne. In a little over a century, the Tudor dynasty reshaped English literature, culture, and politics. The Tudors have continued to shape popular imaginations of the English past ever since, being variously conscripted for the ideological work of Britain’s expanding empire, hailed as a privileged origin point for modernity, and transformed into popular novels, films, and TV series. This course explores the history and culture of the Tudor period and its enduring hold on our cultural imagination. Through readings, discussions, and class activities, we will explore such topics as narratives of the Protestant Reformation, the history of sexuality and queer erasure, race and colonialism in the early modern world, and literary transformations including the emergence of the literary market and the public stage. Readings will include poems, plays, and experimental prose writings by Thomas More, John Bale, Anne Askew, Thomas Wyatt, Anne Lok, Edmund Spenser, William Shakespeare, and John Donne, as well as more recent films, novels, and TV shows including Hilary Mantel’s Wolf Hall, Robert Bolt’s A Man for All Seasons, Derek Jarman’s Jubilee, Marc Norman and Tom Stoppard’s Shakespeare in Love, and Toby Marlowe and Lucy Moss’s musical Six.

This course satisfies the “Pre-1700 Guided Elective" requirement for English concentrators and Secondary Field students.

English 90yp. W.B. Yeats

Instructor: Peter Sacks
Wednesday, 12:00-2:00pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 15 students

An undergraduate seminar examining the poetry of William Butler Yeats.

This course satisfies the “1900-2000 Guided Elective" requirement for English concentrators and Secondary Field students.

Undergraduate Tutorials

English 91r. Supervised Reading and Research

The Supervising Reading and Research tutorial is a type of student-driven independent study offering individual instruction in subjects of special interest that cannot be studied in regular courses. English 91r is supervised by a member of the English Department faculty.  It is a graded course and may not be taken more than twice, and only once for concentration credit. Students must submit a proposal and get approval from the faculty member with whom they wish to work.

Proposed syllabi and faculty approval must be submitted and verified by the English Department Undergraduate Office by the Course Registration Deadline.

English 98r. Junior Tutorial

English 99r. Senior Tutorial

Supervised individual tutorial in an independent scholarly or critical subject.

Students on the honors thesis track will register for English 99r in both the fall and spring terms. 

Creative Writing Workshops

English CACW. Advanced Creative Writing Workshop

Instructor: Paul Yoon
Wednesday, 12:00-2:45 pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 12 students

Advanced fiction workshop for students who have already taken a workshop at Harvard. You will be responsible for participating in discussions on the assigned texts, the workshop, engaging with the work of your colleagues, and revise your work. The end goal will be to produce 2 short stories, or 2 chapters of a novel, to be submitted as your final portfolio.

English CAFR. Advanced Fiction Workshop: Writing this Present Life

Instructor: Claire Messud
Thursday, 3:00-5:45 pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 12 students

Intended for students with prior fiction-writing and workshop experience, this course will concentrate on structure, execution and revision. Exploring various strands of contemporary and recent literary fiction – writers such as Karl Ove Knausgaard, Rachel Cusk, Chimamanda Adichie, Valeria Luiselli, etc – we will consider how fiction works in our present moment, with emphasis on a craft perspective. Each student will present to the class a published fiction that has influenced them. The course is primarily focused on the discussion of original student work, with the aim of improving both writerly skills and critical analysis. Revision is an important component of this class: students will workshop two stories and a revision of one of these.

Supplemental Application Information: Please submit 3-5 pages of prose fiction, along with a substantive letter of introduction. I’d like to know why you’re interested in the course; what experience you’ve had writing, both in previous workshops and independently; what your literary goals and ambitions are. Please tell me about some of your favorite narratives – fiction, non-fiction, film, etc: why they move you, and what you learn from them.

English CCDS. Scene Work, Dream Work: Fiction Workshop on Design and Structure of Narrative Scenes

Instructor: Nick White
Wednesday, 3:00-5:45 pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 12 students

In The Scene Book: A Primer for Fiction Writers, Sandra Scofield asserts that “[t]he scene is the most vivid and immediate part of story, the place where the reader is the most emotionally involved, the part that leaves the reader with images and a memory of the action.” This workshop will explore the elements of dynamic scenes: from lively narrative action to memorable dialogue. We will also study how to organize and structure our scenes within the short story and the novel. We will consult other craft texts on scenes and structure, including Jane Alison’s MeanderSpiralExplode: Design and Pattern in Narrative and Charles Baxter’s Burning Down the House: Essays on Fiction. Additionally, we will closely read several contemporary short stories, novellas, and novel excerpts that will serve as model texts for how to use scenes effectively in our fiction.
You will write one flash piece and one short story or novel chapter (around 5,000 words), and both will be workshopped in class. Your final project will be a substantial revision of your short story / chapter. 

English CFMR. Interiority & Experience: Writing Character-Driven Fiction: Workshop

Instructor: Claire Messud
Wednesday, 3:00-5:45pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 12 students

This course approaches the writing of fiction with character at its center. If fiction is an exploration of what it’s like to be alive on the planet, character is paramount: we are who we are because of a combination temperament and experience. You can’t write convincingly if you don’t know your characters: plot, voice, detail, dialogue, setting – all these elements of story are interwoven with and dependent upon character. While it will be primarily a workshop of student fiction, we will read and discuss fiction through the lens of character – including works by Gustave Flaubert, Virginia Woolf, Joyce Carol Oates, Toni Morrison, Viet Than Nguyen, Ben Lerner, and Tayari Jones. 

English CNGS. Advanced Fiction: The Good Stuff

Instructor: Meng Jin
Thursday, 3:00-5:45pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 12 students

This course is a workshop in pleasure and delight. And wonder and joy and laughter, and rule-breaking, and everything that makes literature lively and alive and worthwhile. We will discover (or rediscover) what it means to truly read for pleasure, probing for all this good stuff in works by writers such as Natalia Ginzburg, Ross Gay, Deesha Philyaw, Shruti Swamy, Naomi Shihab Nye, and more—works that are not merely hedonistic or escapist, but attempt to maintain a modest humanism in spite of humanity’s sins, and to insist on cheerfulness and loving in the face of catastrophe and personal tragedy. We will try to cultivate these instincts in our own writing practice.

This will be primarily a fiction workshop, though we will occasionally read some joyous and delightful poetry and nonfiction. Student writing will be workshopped as fiction, but we will conceive of fiction in the widest sense, as any prose work whose value is not derived from its basis in fact. This is an advanced workshop, intended for students with some creative writing experience, because the good stuff is hard, and because you will be expected to read and write deeply, and a lot.​​​​​​​... Read more about English CNGS. Advanced Fiction: The Good Stuff

English CNL. The Novel Lab: Studying Long-Form Narratives in Fiction

Instructor: Paul Yoon
Wednesday, 3:00-5:45 pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 12 students

What defines a novel? And what does it mean to read one as a writer? How does a painter consider a painting or a photographer a photo? This readings class will study novels through the point of view of a practicing writer. We will read one novel a week, with the goal of exploring the ways in which long-form narratives are constructed, from chapter to chapter, from one movement to another—that is, the architecture of it. Please note: this is not a typical workshop. You will not be sharing you work every week, though later on in the semester we may participate in small group workshops and readings. Consider the class an investigation into all the tools a writer has to create fiction, with the end goal of producing 2 - 3 chapters of the beginning of a novel as your final project.

English CQN. “Queer Stories, Queer Lives”: A Fiction Workshop on Queer Narratives

Instructor: Nick White
Thursday, 12:00-2:45 pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 12 students

Is there a queer aesthetic? Or is there a particularly queer way to tell a story? Do our lived experiences as queer folk affect the kinds of stories we tell?
In this workshop, we will explore how queer writers have endeavored to tell their stories, and then we will craft and workshop our own. Readings to include excerpts or full texts from: Alexander Chee’s Edinburgh, Garth Greenwell’s Cleanness, Jewelle Gómez’s The Gilda Stories, Randall Kenan’s A Visitation of Spirits, Andrea Lawlor’s Paul Takes the Form of a Mortal Girl, Morgan Thomas’s Manywhere, as well as others. You will write one flash piece and one short story/novel chapter (around 5k words). Your final project will be a substantial revision of the short story/novel chapter. 

This course satisfies the English Concentration "Diversity in Literature" requirement for students on the “Common Ground” curriculum.

English CVLP. Plundering the Americas: Histories of Extractive Violence and Creative Resistance in the Americas

Instructor: Valeria Luiselli
Wednesday, 12:45-2:45pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 12 students

This course focuses on the histories of extractivism and violence against land and bodies in the Americas, centering on ways in which writing, art and activism have responded to systemic violence across the region.

We will be considering works from across different languages, cultures and disciplines –such as literature, sound art, visual art and performance–  and will be grounding our discussions in the history of global commodities, such as gold, silver, coffee, cotton, sugar, bananas, avocados and bodies. Students will write weekly responses to readings, and work on their own hybrid forms of prose, which will be read in class and workshopped collectively.

Authors include: José Martí, Aimé Césaire, Natalie Díaz, Dolores Dorantes, Gabriela Wiener, Audra Simpson, Rita Segato, and Yasnaya Elena Aguilar. 

This course satisfies the English Concentration "Diversity in Literature" requirement for students on the “Common Ground” curriculum.


Apply via Submittable (deadline: 11:59pm EDT on Sunday, August 21)

English CVR. Fiction Writing: Workshop

Instructor: Jamaica Kincaid
TBA | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 12 students

This class is open to anyone who can write a letter, not an e-mail, a letter, just a plain simple letter, to someone who lives far away from you and who has no idea really of who you really are, except that you are, like them, another human being. I have not quite yet settled on the books we will read but we will see some films: The Four hundred Blows, Black Girl, The Battle of Algiers, The Mack, a documentary about the Motown singing group, The Temptations.

Supplemental Application Information: 

A brief autobiographical note, to give me some sense of who you are and what your are interested in now, will be appreciated. Many thanks.

No writing sample

English CAJR. Investigations: Journalism and The 2022 Elections

Instructor: Jill Abramson
Tuesday, 9:00-11:45am | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 12 students

Taught by veteran political journalist Jill Abramson, the former Executive Editor of The New York Times, this advanced seminar focuses on political journalism and closely examines coverage of the 2022 elections for Governor, U.S. Senate and the U.S. House as these races unfold this fall.  We will try to answer the question of whether political journalism does its job of delivering voters the quality information they need to select their leaders. On a weekly basis, we will read and study the political coverage of major news organizations, from print (including The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Guardian, The Wall Street Journal, The Atlantic and The New Yorker, among others), broadcast (PBS Frontline and The NewsHour) podcasts, newsletters, blogs and other outlets chosen by students.

Choosing from a list of closely contested races, each student will closely follow news coverage of a statewide or local race. Readings will include in-depth candidate profiles, analytic articles about electoral dynamics, and investigations into subjects such as the role of money in politics. Through close reading, we will examine the rules of quality journalism and see if they apply to political coverage and explore concepts such as objectivity and bias, which are in flux. We will delve into the rise of partisan and ideological journalism and read examples of this type of political writing. Students will examine the role of social media platforms in their electoral races. Writing assignments will include candidate profiles reported by students, editorials (opinion pieces) and an investigative article about assaults on democracy.

The emphasis of the course is on narrative and investigative writing techniques (ie. not horse-race coverage), the development of story ideas, refinement of voice and narrative framing. Students will learn how to outline, draft and revise their articles, and will master the fundamentals of the editing process in journalism.

Guest speakers will include many of the political journalists whose articles are included on the syllabus. No prior journalism experience required.

English CAP. The Art of the Personal Essay: Workshop

Instructor: Darcy Frey
Section 1: Wednesday, 3:00-5:45 pm | Location: TBA
Section 2: Thursday, 3:00-5:45 pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 12 students.

What makes for a successful work of personal narrative? What transforms mere experience into shapely art? In this workshop, we will study—partly by reading the published work of iconic and experimental essayists, mainly through the submission and discussion of students’ own writing—the craft and technique of the personal essay. Readings include work by James Baldwin, Joan Didion, Rachel Kaadzi Ghansah, David Foster Wallace.

English CIJR. Introduction to Journalism: Workshop

Instructor: Jill Abramson
Tuesday, 9:00-11:45am | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 12 students

An intensive seminar for those interested in understanding the changing role of journalism and learning the art of reporting and writing narrative stories. The course is designed for students who want a better sense of how journalism really works, taught by the former Executive Editor of The New York Times. Major types of journalism-- profiles, features and investigations will be examined and analyzed. Coursework will include two, magazine-length, narrative nonfiction articles. One is a reported profile. The other is on a subject chosen by each student. A first-person memoir is assigned between these two articles. Readings will include some of the best examples of modern journalism, from magazine features by authors including Gay Talese, Jane Mayer, David Carr and Rachel Kaadzi Ghansah to multimedia narratives such as The New York Times' "Snow Fall" and podcasts.” On a daily basis, students will listen each weekday to The Daily, the news podcast produced by The New York Times. Because this seminar is focused on improving writing skills, students will master the various stages of writing and editing pieces of longform journalism, from how to come up with story ideas, how to outline, how to write a draft and revise work for a final, publishable version. No previous journalism experience required.

English CAPR. Poetry: Workshop

Instructor: Jorie Graham
Section 1: Tuesday, 6:00-8:45 pm | Location: TBA
Section 2: Wednesday, 6:00-8:45 pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 12 students.

Open by application to both undergraduates and graduates. Class lasts three hours and includes the study of poetic practice in conjunction with the discussion of student work.

English CBBR. Intermediate Poetry: Workshop

Instructor: Josh Bell
Monday, 6:00-8:45pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 12 students

Initially, students can expect to read, discuss, and imitate the strategies of a wide range of poets writing in English; to investigate and reproduce prescribed forms and poetic structures; and to engage in writing exercises meant to expand the conception of what a poem is and can be. As the course progresses, reading assignments will be tailored on an individual basis, and an increasing amount of time will be spent in discussion of student work.

English CHCR. Advanced Poetry: Workshop

Instructor: Josh Bell
Tuesday, 6:00-8:45pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 12 students

By guided reading, classroom discussion, one on one conference, and formal and structural experimentation, members of the Advanced Poetry Workshop will look to hone, deepen, and challenge the development of their poetic inquiry and aesthetic. Students will be required to write and submit one new poem each week and to perform in-depth, weekly critiques of their colleagues' work.

English CALR. Advanced Screenwriting: Workshop

Instructor: Musa Syeed
Tuesday, 12:00-2:45pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 12 students

The feature-length script is an opportunity to tell a story on a larger scale, and, therefore, requires additional preparation. In this class, we will move from writing a pitch, to a synopsis, to a treatment/outline, to the first 10 pages, to the first act of a feature screenplay. We will analyze produced scripts and discuss various elements of craft, including research, writing layered dialogue, world-building, creating an engaging cast of characters. As an advanced class, we will also look at ways both mainstream and independent films attempt to subvert genre and structure.
Students will end the semester with a first act (20-30 pages) of their feature, an outline, and strategy to complete the full script.

Supplemental Application Information: Please submit a 3-5 page writing sample. Screenplays are preferred, but fiction, creative non-fiction, poetry, and plays are acceptable as well. Also, please write a short note to introduce yourself. Include a couple films/filmmakers that have inspired you, your goals for the class, as well as any themes/subject matter/ideas you might be interested in exploring in your writing for film.

English CAMR. Advanced Playwriting: Workshop

Instructor: Sam Marks
TBA | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 12 students.

This workshop is a continued exploration of writing for the stage, with an eye towards presentation.  The semester will culminate in a staged reading of each student's work for the Harvard Playwrights Festival. Each reading will be directed by a professional director.  Students will be encouraged to excavate their own voice in playwriting and learn from the final presentation. The class will examine the design of the stage, the playworld, and the page. Students will attempt multiple narrative strategies and dialogue techniques. They will bolster their craft of playwriting through generating short scripts and a completed one act. Readings will include significant contributors to the theatrical form such as Caryl Churchill and Samuel Beckett as well as contemporary dramatists such as Annie Baker, Jackie Sibbles Drury, Branden Jacobs Jenkins, and Jeremy O. Harris.

Supplemental Application Information: Prior experience in writing the dramatic form is strongly encouraged. Please submit a 5-10 page writing sample (preferably a play or screenplay, but all genres are acceptable). Also, please write a few sentences about a significant theatrical experience (a play read or seen) and how it affected you.

English CLR. Introduction to Screenwriting: Workshop

Instructor: Musa Syeed
Monday, 12:00-2:45pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 12 students

The short film, with its relatively lower costs of production and expanded distribution opportunities, has become one of the most disruptive, innovative modes of storytelling--and is often an emerging filmmaker's first step into a career. This course will introduce students to the basics of short form screenwriting, including narrative theory/structure, character design, and dialogue/voice. In the first quarter of the semester, we will hone dramatic techniques through several craft exercise assignments and in-class writing. In the following weeks, students will write two short screenplays. Throughout the semester, we will be workshopping and doing table reads of student work, discussing screenplays and craft texts, and screening a wide array of short films. The emphasis will be on discovering a sense of personal voice and completing two short screenplays (under 20 pages).

Graduate Seminars

English 210. Early Middle English Identitites

Instructor: Daniel Donoghue
Wednesday, 12:00-2:00pm | Location: TBA
​​​​​​​Enrollment: Limited to 15 students

This course investigates linguistic, individual, and national identities in early Middle English literature, and as such the course itself has multiple identities. On a basic level it is an introduction to the English vernacular of 1100 to 1300, a period of great flux without a “standard” such as the one that existed in late Old English (West Saxon) and the other that emerged at the end of the fourteenth century (London). Not only are there significant differences in dialect, but even within similar dialects orthographic conventions could vary from one scribe to the next. Because nearly every text has its linguistic idiosyncrasies, the end of many of our meetings will analyze the language of the text set for discussion the next week in order to make the week’s reading a little easier. The earlier and more challenging texts have facing-page translations. 

This is also a period of great experimentation in genres, with some innovations that took hold and others that fizzled out, such as the verse chronicle of Lawman. Dame Sirith is the only surviving fabliau in English until Chaucer resurrected the genre. Is there anything later quite like The Owl and the Nightingale? Does Ormulum deserve the obscurity it has slipped into? Some genres like saints’ lives were inherited from Old English and with sources in Latin. Others like family romances arose in response to changing social conditions unique to the period. The “false starts” are often as interesting as the genres that continued.

English 276lr. The New Negro Renaissance, 1895 - 1930

Instructor: Henry Louis Gates, Jr.
TBA| Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 15 students

This course traces the history of the metaphor of a “New Negro” from its inception at the dawn of Jim Crow to the end of the New Negro Renaissance in the Great Depression. The period of Reconstruction (1865-1877), following the American Civil War, ushered in a “Second Founding” of the nation through the ratification of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the Constitution, abolishing slavery, establishing birthright citizenship, due process and equal protection of the laws, and the right to vote for black male citizens. While revolutionary, the period of Reconstruction was also short-lived, and the long, violent roll-back against it, curiously known as the “Redemption,” witnessed the curtailing of these rights along with the rise and institutionalization of Jim Crow segregation in what one newspaper editor coined the “New South.”  A key aspect of Redemption was a propaganda war designed to debase the image of African Americans, and thereby justify the deprivation of their rights. Resisting it, African Americans, starting in the mid-1890s, employed the concept of a “New Negro” to combat racist images of an “Old Negro” fabricated by apologists for Jim Crow. The trope of a New Negro underwent several revisions between the 1890’s and 1920’s, when—in the midst of the Great Migration of African Americans from the South to the North—the Harvard-trained philosopher, Alain Locke, revised and appropriated the term  to describe a remarkable flowering of art and literature that he named “The New Negro Renaissance,” and which later would be labeled “The Harlem Renaissance.”

English 280ql. Queer and Trans Literature and Criticism

Instructor: Stephanie Burt
Monday, 12:00-2:00pm| Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 15 students

Queer and trans literary writing now, its parallels and its precursors, from late medieval to the present day, along with useful ideas about it. Some history, some theory, but mostly queer and trans and queer-adjacent literature. Marlowe, Rochester, K. Phillips, Wilde, Rich, Baldwin; some primary texts determined by *your interests,* including less-often-studied genres and media such as graphic novels and YA.

English 290mh. Migration and the Humanities

Instructor: Homi Bhabha & Mariano Siskind
Wednesday, 3:00-5:00pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 15 students

By focusing on literary narratives, cultural representations, and critical theories, this course explores ways in which issues related to migration create rich and complex interdisciplinary conversations. How do humanistic disciplines address these issues—human rights, cultural translation, global justice, security, citizenship, social discrimination, biopolitics—and what contributions do they make to the “home” disciplines of migration studies such as law, political science, and sociology? How do migration narratives compel us to revise our concepts of culture, polity, neighborliness, and community? We will explore diverse aspects of migration from existential, ethical, and philosophical perspectives while engaging with specific regional and political histories.

English 294z. On Beauty

Instructor: Elaine Scarry
Thursday, 12:45-2:45pm | Location: TBA
Enrollment: Limited to 15 students

Philosophic and literary accounts of beauty from Greek through modern, including Plato, Aquinas, Dante, Kant, Keats, and Rilke. In addition, the major arguments against beauty; and its stability across four objects (gods, gardens, persons, and poems).

English 298dh. Methods in Digital Humanities

Instructor: Derek Miller
TBA | Location: TBA
Conference seminar course (open to both undergraduates and graduates)

This course introduces practical skills in programming for the Digital Humanities (DH) while also investigating the theories and debates that continue to define that field. We will focus primarily on DH’s applications to research questions in the humanities rather than on any pedagogical or archival uses. The course is designed with a firm belief not in DH’s righteousness—indeed, we will devote considerable time to critiques of the field—but rather in the necessity of grappling with its ideas and practices in an informed manner. To that end, our exploration of DH methods will involve considerable work in computer programming (though you need have no prior knowledge of those skills). Our practical work with coding and with pre-fabricated digital tools will give us the tools to understand what happens to our thinking when we think about the humanities with computers.

English 320. G1 Proseminar

Instructor: Nicholas Watson
Wednesday, 9:00-11:45am | Location: TBA

The first-year proseminar (taken in the spring semester of the first year) introduces students to the theories, methods, and history of English as a discipline, and contemporary debates in English studies. The readings feature classic texts in all fields, drawn from the General Exam list. This first-year proseminar helps students prepare for the General Exam (taken at the beginning of their second year); it gives them a broad knowledge for teaching and writing outside their specialty; and it builds an intellectual and cultural community among first-year students.

Note: This seminar is only for first year graduate students in the English Department.

English 330. G2 Proseminar

Instructor: John Stauffer
TBA | Location: TBA

This second-year proseminar has a two-part focus:  it introduces students to the craft of scholarly publishing by helping them revise a research paper for publication in a peer-reviewed journal by the end of the course.  It thus gives students the tools to begin publishing early in their career.  It also introduces students to the growing array of alternative careers in the humanities by exposing them to the work of scholars who are leaders in fields such as editing, curating, and digital humanities.  

Note: Open to English graduate students only. Prerequisite: For G2+ students

First-Year Seminars

Freshman Seminar 63n. Narrative Negotiations: How do Readers and Writers Decide

Instructor: Homi Bhabha
Wednesday, 3:00-5:00pm | Location: TBA

Narrative Negotiations explores narrative “voice” in a wide range of literary and cultural texts. Narrative voice is a lively dialogue between the author and the reader as they engage in the experience of determining the value and veracity of the narrative: whose story is it anyway? The writer creates the imaginative universe of character, plot, emotions and ideas—she seems to be holding all the cards; but it is the reader who rolls the dice as she draws on her human experience and moral values to question the principles and priorities of the storyteller. The game of narrative becomes deadly serious when storytelling confronts issues of colonialism, slavery, racial profiling and gender discrimination. Is the right to narrative restricted to those who have suffered the injustices of exclusion? What is my responsibility as a storyteller—or a reader—if I am a witness to violence, or an advocate against injustice, but my life-story is one of privilege, protection and security? What is the role of the politics of identity or cultural appropriation in determining whose story is it anyway? Throughout the seminar students will be encouraged to draw on their own histories, memories and literary experiences as the enter into the world of the prescribed readings. For the final assessment I hope students will choose critical and creative ways of telling their own stories, or the stories of others who have captured their imaginations. Seminar participants will be required to come to each class with two questions that pose issues or problems based on the texts that are important for them, and may prove to be significant for their colleagues. I will invite members of the group to pose their questions and start a discussion.

Freshman Seminar 64n. Introduction to Lyric Poetry

Instructor: Gordon Teskey
TBA | Location: TBA

This is a seminar for first-year students that introduces lyric poetry from Asia, Europe, and North America. The seminar covers a wide range of time as well as place. We travel from ancient Greece and Rome to medieval Italy and France, from classical China, Japan, and Persia to Renaissance Europe, from the Romantic period in England, Germany, and France to contemporary America.

All poems not in English—in Greek, Latin, Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, Anglo Saxon, Italian, German, and French—will be studied in translation. Students with knowledge of any of these languages are encouraged to bring the originals into discussion and to use them for translation assignments.

The first purpose of the seminar is to provide knowledge of poetry from the past and from around the world. The second purpose of the seminar is to provide students with a grounding to write poetry themselves. Weekly exercises include posted comments, translations, and poems.

Lyric Poetry in Six Acts

Act I    Graeco-Roman and Medieval: Poetry of Violence, Fame, and Love 

Act II      Middle East: Poetry of Love and of Faith. Meditations on Death

Act III    China and Japanese: Poetry of Passion. Poetry of Reflection

Act IV    The Renaissance: Poetry as Art and about Art

Act V     The Romantics: Poetry as Expression

Act VI    The Modern Age: Poetry in a Dying World